In the books of Henry James, born in New York but later an expatriate in England, fiction took a different pathway.
There have been suggestions that Hudson acted as a spy for England, using his contract to get Dutch maps for areas where the English had none. Hudson met with three Dutch cartographers during his negotiations with the United Dutch East India Company, and likely got from them maps that showed parts of the area he planned to explore on his next voyage.
There is no other good explanation why Hudson broke his contract and turned away from his voyage north to sail across the ocean and explore the coast of the New World.
Unable to find anyone in England to back his proposed expedition, Henry Hudson turned to the Dutch - England's greatest trading rival - and was eventually hired to seek a Northeast Passage - the direction he had taken in his unsuccessful second voyage over the top of Russia.
But after a short journey north, Hudson again faced a possible mutiny from his crew, possibly led by Robert Juet.
He turned his ship, the Half Moonaround and - ignoring his contract terms - instead headed for the New World and warmer climate. Click image for a map of this voyage. Hudson explored the northeastern coast of America, eventually sailing into the mouth of a wide river near today's New York City.
He hoped the river - now named the Hudson River - would provide a passage west to the Pacific. But after miles km - and reaching a location near where Albany sits today - he found the river had become too shallow to continue.
Hudson had to turn around and head home, again proving unsuccessful at finding a way to the Orient. He noted numerous fights with the natives, killing, drunkenness, looting and even a kidnapping. The crew was generally negative towards native Americans, and somewhat afraid of them, which may have influenced later relations between native groups and European settlers.
It was hardly a "glorious" expedition in terms of future diplomacy. The real importance of this voyage was in the explorations and its influence would come later, when the Dutch settled around today's Manhattan Island and founded their New World colony.
Hudson's third voyage was the first to record the European discovery of today's New York State. There is considerable contention among historians and geographers as to which landmarks Juet identified. George Asher, whose work on Hudson remains among the most important, tried to determine modern settings from Juet's record, but many of his choices were later challenged by Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes in The Iconography of Manhattan Island and other interpreters.
On his return, Hudson stopped in England, where he was arrested for sailing under another nation's flag, considered treason at the time. He and his crew stayed in England while the Dutch ship and the Dutch sailors in the crew went home, apparently with Hudson's record of the voyage.
Hudson's own log and journal went with the Half Moon back to Amsterdam, and was not seen by English eyes again. However, parts of it were quoted and reproduced in Dutch books in see my list of sources.The New York Stories of Henry James (New York Review Books Classics) - Kindle edition by Henry James, Colm Toibin.
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Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, KCSI (15 August – 3 February ), was a British Whig comparative jurist and historian.
He is famous for the thesis outlined in his book Ancient Law that law and society developed "from status to contract." According to the thesis, in the ancient world individuals were tightly bound by status to traditional groups, while in the modern one, in which.
Henry James Sr. (June 3, in Albany, New York – December 18, in Boston, Massachusetts) was an American theologian and adherent of Swedenborgianism, also known for being the father of the philosopher William James, novelist Henry James, and diarist Alice James.
The Complete Letters of Henry James fills a crucial gap in modern literary studies by presenting in a scholarly edition the complete letters of one of the great novelists and letter writers of the English language.
Comprising more than ten thousand letters reflecting on a remarkably wide range of topics—from James’s own life and literary projects to broader questions on art, literature.
life of Henry James, was published in and shortlisted New York THE NEW YORK STORIES OF HENRY JAMES Selected and with an introduction by COLM TÓIBÍN.
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